The Final Countdown: An E-Book and The Republic of Congo

Our group is centering our E-book around five different African, Sub-saharan countries and the cultural, economical, political and social challenges that they are facing. Now, this isn’t news for anyone who has been researching as much as we have been researching for the entirety of this class. From all of the different viewpoints of Sach’s and Moyo regarding aid and the state of developing countries, there is one thing that they undeniably agree on: sub-sahara Africa is not doing well.

For my country, I chose to research the Republic of Congo. Here are some bare bones statistics about the country that I have collected through research of the World Fact Book.

Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa’s largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.


Central Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
1 00 S, 15 00 E
total: 342,000 sq km

country comparison to the world: 64

land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km
slightly smaller than Montana
total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
169 km
territorial sea: 200 nm
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
arable land: 1.46%
permanent crops: 0.18%
other: 98.36% (2011)
20 sq km (2003)
832 cu km (2011)
total: 0.05 cu km/yr (69%/26%/4%)
per capita: 13.99 cu m/yr (2005)
seasonal flooding
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them


noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M’Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Roman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3% (2010 est.)
4,662,446 (July 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
0-14 years: 41.1% (male 966,852/female 950,411)
15-24 years: 17.7% (male 411,263/female 413,594)
25-54 years: 34.2% (male 808,181/female 787,554)
55-64 years: 3% (male 90,795/female 94,837)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 60,400/female 78,559) (2014 est.)
population pyramid: 
total dependency ratio: 84.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 78.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 %
potential support ratio: 15.9 (2013)
total: 19.8 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2014 est.)
1.94% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

36.59 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

10.17 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

-7.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

urban population: 63.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
BRAZZAVILLE (capital) 1.611 million (2011)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
19.8 (2011-12 est.)
560 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

country comparison to the world: 16

total: 59.34 deaths/1,000 live births

country comparison to the world: 24

male: 64.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total population: 58.52 years

country comparison to the world: 198

male: 57.38 years
female: 59.7 years (2014 est.)
4.73 children born/woman (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

44.7% (2011/12)
2.5% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 186

0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2005)
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 31.9% of population
total: 72.4% of population
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 68.1% of population
total: 27.6% of population (2011 est.)
urban: 19.5% of population
rural: 14.8% of population
total: 17.8% of population
urban: 80.5% of population
rural: 85.2% of population
total: 82.2% of population (2011 est.)
2.8% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

74,500 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

5,200 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)
4.7% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 163

11.8% (2005)

country comparison to the world: 61

6.2% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 39

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2012)
total number: 252,171
percentage: 25 % (2005 est.)


conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
name: Brazzaville
geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
12 departments (departments, singular – department); Bouenza, Brazzaville, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pointe-Noire, Pool, Sangha
15 August 1960 (from France)
Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
previous 1992; latest approved by referendum 20 January 2002 (2002)
mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997); note – the position of prime minister was abolished in September 2009
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 July 2009 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president; percent of vote – Denis SASSOU-Nguesso 78.6%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 7.5%, Nicephore Fylla de SAINT-EUDES 7%, other 6.9%
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (72 seats; members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (139 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: Senate – last held on 5 August 2008 (next to be held in July 2014); National Assembly – last held on 15 July and 5 August 2012 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – RMP 33, FDU 23, UPADS 2, independents 7, other 7; National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PCT (and allies) 117, UPADS 7, independents 12, vacant 3
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA judges)
note – the High Court of Justice, outside the judicial authority, tries cases involving treason by the president of the republic
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by parliament and serve until retirement age
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; regional and district courts; employment tribunals; juvenile courts
Action Movement for Renewal or MAR
Congolese Labour Party or PCT
Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]
Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD
Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]
Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]
Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP
Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR
United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]
many smaller parties
Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI (since 31 July 2001)
chancery: 1720 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephanie S. Sullivan (since 12 August 2013)
embassy: 70-83 Section D, Maya-Maya Boulevard, Brazzaville;
mailing address: B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 06 612-200
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; green symbolizes agriculture and forests, yellow the friendship and nobility of the people, red is unexplained but has been associated with the struggle for independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
lion; elephant
name: “La Congolaise” (The Congolese)


The economy is a mixture of subsistence hunting and agriculture, an industrial sector based largely on oil and support services, and government spending. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Natural gas is increasingly being converted to electricity rather than being flared, greatly improving energy prospects. New mining projects, particularly iron ore, that entered production in late 2013 may add as much as $1 billion to annual government revenue. Economic reform efforts have been undertaken with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF, including recently concluded Article IV consultations. The current administration faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. The drop in oil prices during the global crisis reduced oil revenue by about 30%, but the subsequent recovery of oil prices boosted the economy’s GDP from 2009-13. Officially the country became a net external creditor as of 2011, with external debt representing only about 16% of GDP and debt servicing less than 3% of government revenue.
$20.26 billion (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

$19.15 billion (2012 est.)
$18.44 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$14.25 billion (2013 est.)
5.8% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

3.8% (2012 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)
$4,800 (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

$4,700 (2012 est.)
$4,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
61.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1

56.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
61.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
household consumption: 24.8%
government consumption: 11.1%
investment in fixed capital: 55.4%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 91.8%
imports of goods and services: -84.1%
(2013 est.)
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 73.9%
services: 22.9% (2013 est.)
cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
2% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

2.89 million (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

53% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 196

46.5% (2011 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37.1% (2005)
revenues: $6.608 billion
expenditures: $4.618 billion (2013 est.)
46.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

14% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

32.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

31.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
calendar year
1.7% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

3.9% (2012 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 78

4.75% (31 December 2008)
14.8% (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

14.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.678 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

$4.403 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.119 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

$4.795 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$-1.053 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 187

$-1.448 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$638.2 million (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

$187.9 million (2012 est.)
$9.912 billion (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

$10.53 billion (2012 est.)
petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
China 39%, US 13%, France 9.5%, Australia 8.8%, Netherlands 6.8%, Spain 5.3%, India 5.2% (2012)
$4.297 billion (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

$4.45 billion (2012 est.)
capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
France 19.5%, China 13.5%, Brazil 9.1%, US 6.1%, India 5.8%, Italy 4.8%, Belgium 4.4% (2012)
$5.239 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

$5.568 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.274 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

$2.999 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar –
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)


the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is undefined except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
refugees (country of origin): 89,424 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2012); 8,404 (Rwanda); 11,000 (Central African Republic) (2014)
IDPs: 7,800 (multiple civil wars since 1992) (2009)



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